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Monthly Archives

September 2017

What Is A Data Breach?

By Cyber Security Awareness | No Comments

You’ve probably heard the term “data breach,” but do you really understand what it is? Make time now to learn more details about a data breach, including what you can do to protect yourself.

Data Breach Defined

A data breach, data leak or data spill is defined as an incident when protected, sensitive or confidential data is viewed, used or stolen by someone who does not have authority to access that data.

The term typically describes a breach that occurs online over the internet. However, it also includes laptop thefts or reading physical files.

During a breach, affected data can include:

  • Non-sensitive or sensitive personally identifiable information (PII) – address, age, or Social Security number
  • Personal health information (PHI) – medical history, lab test results and insurance information
  • Intellectual property
  • Trade secrets

How Does a Data Breach Occur?

Anyone can be affected by a data breach, and it can happen in several ways.

  1. Thieves intercept unencrypted data.
  2. Hackers gain access to files over weak or unsecured computer networks.
  3. Someone with access to personal information sells it to thieves.
  4. Your laptop, smartphone or other electronic device is misplaced or stolen.
  5. A hacker gathers the personal data you share over unsecured websites.
  6. Phishing schemes entice you to share your data with criminals.
  7. You send sensitive information through social media.
  8. Physical files or hard copies of information are stolen.
  9. Someone videotapes an employee who enters data into the computer.

What Happens After a Data Breach?

When your data is used, viewed or stolen, it can affect you in several ways.

  • The criminal could access your financial accounts.
  • Someone could impersonate you and open credit accounts or apply for car, house or personal loans in your name.
  • The thief could log into your work account and gather secret information about your company.

Protection from a Data Breach

Numerous regulations dictate how employers, medical providers and others can use your data. For example, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulates access to your PHI, and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard defines who can access and use your sensitive PII.

These protections aren’t always enough, though. You should also take several steps to protect your data.

  • Secure your devices with passwords.
  • Use a different and challenging password for each log-in.
  • Encrypt sensitive personal and work data.
  • Share personal information, including your credit card number, on secure sites.
  • Do not open links from untrusted sources.
  • Update software often.
  • Subscribe to a data breach monitoring service.
  • Purchase cyber liability insurance

A data breach can affect your life now and well into the future. Take steps today to protect yourself.

Steps To Take If Your Identity Is Stolen

By Cyber Security Awareness | No Comments

Identity theft affects over 17 million people every year reports the Bureau of Justice Statistics. While you hope it doesn’t happen to you, these steps can help you take action if you are an identity theft victim.

Take action immediately.

As soon as you think your identity is stolen, take action. The situation will only get worse if you wait to correct it.

Create a log.

In a notebook or on your phone, create a log that tracks every phone call, letter or email you send. Record the dates and times of the communication and the person to whom you speak. You’ll need this record to prove that you’re taking action to address the identity theft.

Contact the three credit bureaus.

Ask the three credit bureaus to put a fraud alert on your accounts.

Review your credit reports.

Check your credit reports carefully. Verify that your personal information is correct then look for any inquiries, open accounts or delinquencies that you did not initiate. Report suspicious activity to the credit bureau immediately.

File a Federal Trade Commission report.

When you report identity theft to the FTC at www.identitytheft.gov or 1-877-ID-THEFT (438-4338), you receive a personalized guide that helps you recover your identity. They also provide you with important forms for creditors and the police.

File a police report.

Identity theft is a crime, so report it to the police. Provide as much evidence of the theft as you can, and keep a copy of the police report to show your creditors.

Contact other organizations if necessary.

If you think your Social Security number or passport is compromised, contact the appropriate organizations.

Close compromised accounts.

Scan your bank and credit card statements, including dormant accounts, for suspicious or fraudulent activity. Alert the financial institution right away if you spot problems, and ask them to lock or close your account.

Open new accounts.

You must continue to pay bills after your identity is stolen, so open new bank and credit card accounts. For each account, choose unique PINs and passwords.

Deal with debt collectors.

You may receive notices from debt collectors about outstanding bills. Call them and send a letter that indicates you are an identity theft victim and not responsible for unpaid bills. Include any related documentation, such as the police report. Ask the debt collector to confirm in writing when the collection account is closed.

Identity theft is challenging to handle and disrupts your life. If you’re a victim, take these steps.

How To Handle Stressful Jobs In Nine Steps

By Your Employee Matters | No Comments

We know that certain dangerous, demanding, detailed and repetitive professions are stressful, but every job includes stressors. Stressful jobs can cause physical, emotional and mental problems for employees. They also affect company safety, productivity and morale. Take nine steps as you learn how to handle stressful jobs and stay healthy.

Identify the stressors.

Numerous factors contribute to stress. Are you overwhelmed with responsibilities, frustrated with co-workers or bored? Identify your stressors as you consider your stress-management options.

Modify your job.

A simple modification like different work hours or a new work station can decrease your stress level. Talk with your supervisor about modifying your job and improving your health.

Talk to someone you trust.

Find a network of listeners who will support you when you need to talk. A friend, co-worker, job coach or therapist can be a sounding board, offer empathy and help you discover a different perspective.

Say no to extra responsibilities.

You may take on extra responsibilities to get a raise or keep your job. Too much work can increase stress, though. Instead, say no to responsibilities you can’t reasonably handle. If saying no isn’t an option, investigate ways to drop or delegate duties.

Organize your day.

Prioritizing tasks, setting a definite quitting time and cleaning off your desk are three simple ways you can organize your day. These steps can also help you feel more in control and less stressed.

Take a break.

Some companies offer flexible time off, so take a day or more when you need it and reboot, relax and unwind. You can also use break time to recharge. Take a walk outside, find a quiet place to meditate, listen to music or read a book.

Change your mind-set.

Maybe you demand perfection from yourself or are stuck in a pattern of negative thinking. Change your mind-set. Give yourself permission to do your best or meditate on inspirational quotes that change your thinking and reduce your stress.

Advocate for yourself.

You may find that nothing helps and your stress levels are still unhealthy. Advocate for yourself and better working conditions. Schedule a meeting with your supervisor, and calmly address the stressful factors. Be prepared with details of the challenges you face and possible solutions.

Find a new job.

A different job or position in your company could relieve your stress. If this switch isn’t possible, you may need to change companies or careers as you protect your health.

Stress on the job can affect your health and work environment. Take these nine steps as you learn how to manage stressful jobs and stay healthy.

Top Eight Home Security Tips

By Personal Perspective | No Comments

A burglary happens every 15 seconds in the United States with thefts averaging $1,725. Protect yourself, your family, your home and your peace of mind when you implement eight top home security tips.

Install an alarm.

Noise is a top deterrent to criminals. Install a whole-house alarm system if possible. Otherwise, post an alarm company’s sign in a prominent location to warn thieves away.

Make the house look occupied.

An empty house is an easy target, so make your home look occupied at all times.

  • Use a timer to turn on outdoor and indoor lights at the same time both day and night.
  • Ask a neighbor to pick up mail and newspapers if you’re on vacation.
  • Don’t advertise travel plans online.
  • Keep a car parked in your driveway.

Turn on the lights.

Burglaries can occur in broad daylight, but thieves also like darkness. Install plenty of outdoor lighting around your property and near all doorways. Set your lights on a timer, too, so they go on and off at the same time each day, giving thieves the illusion that you are always home.

Secure the doors.

An unlocked door is an open invitation for burglars, and exterior doors are the most common point for burglar entries. Be sure to buy sturdy, wooden or metal exterior doors with deadbolts and auxiliary locks, and keep them locked even when you’re home. If you have a sliding door, secure it with a metal bar. You should also change the locks after you move into a new house and after you lose your keys.

Secure the windows.

Keep your windows locked at all times. If possible, purchase multi-pane windows with reinforced glass or acrylic. You can also add security film for additional protection.

Don’t hide a spare key.

You may be tempted to store a spare key under the doormat, on the door frame, in your mailbox or in a false rock. Instead, give it to a trusted neighbor where it’s inaccessible to a burglar.

Trim the bushes.

Overgrown bushes, shrubs and other landscaping provide the perfect cover for a thief. Trim the landscaping around your home. You can also plant thorny or spiked plants under windows to deter criminals.

Secure the garage door.

It’s surprisingly easy to break into a garage, so always lock the door. Install a motion sensing light in the garage, too, to alert you and neighbors of suspicious activity. You should also remove your automatic garage door opener from your vehicle overnight.

These top eight home security tips protect you, your family and your valuables. For additional security tips, talk to your insurance agent.

Workplace Cyber Risks

By Cyber Security Awareness | No Comments

The federal Internet Crime Complaint Center received more than 330,000 complaints in 2009, and more than a third of them ended up in the hands of law enforcement. The damages from those referred to the authorities totaled more than a half billion dollars. The Government Accountability Office estimated that cyber crime cost U.S. organizations $67.2 billion in 2005; that number has likely increased since then.

With so much of business today done electronically, organizations of all types are highly vulnerable to theft and corruption of their data. It is important for them to identify their loss exposures, possible loss scenarios, and prepare for them.

Some of the questions they should ask include:

What types of property are vulnerable? 

The organization should consider property it owns, leases, or property of others it has in its custody.

Some examples:

  • Money, both the organization’s own funds and those it holds as a fiduciary for someone else
  • Customer or member lists containing personally identifiable information, account numbers, cell phone numbers, and other non-public information
  • Personnel records
  • Medical insurance records
  • Bank account information
  • Confidential memos and spreadsheets
  • E-mail
  • Software stored on web servers

Different types of property will be susceptible to various threats, such as embezzlement, extortion, viruses, and theft.

What loss scenarios could occur?

The organization needs to prepare for events such as:

  • A fire destroys large portions of the computer network, including the servers. Operations cease until the servers can be replaced and reloaded with data.
  • A computer virus infects a workstation. The user of that computer unknowingly spreads it to everyone in his workgroup, crippling the department during one of the year’s peak periods.
  • The accounting department discovers a pattern of irregular small funds transfers to an account no one has ever heard of. The transfers, which have been occurring for almost three months, were small enough to avoid attracting attention. They total more than $10,000.
  • A vendor’s employee strikes up a casual conversation at a worker’s cubicle and stays long enough to memorize the worker’s computer password, written on a post-it note stuck to her monitor. Two weeks later, technology staff discovers that an offsite computer has accessed the human resources database and viewed Social Security numbers, driver’s license numbers, and other personal information.

In addition to taking steps to prevent these things from happening, the organization should consider buying a Cyber insurance policy. Several insurance companies now offer this coverage; although no standard policy exists yet, the policies share some common features. They usually cover property or data damage or destruction, data protection and recovery, loss of income when a business must suspend operations due to data loss, extra expenses necessary to maintain operations following a data event, data theft, and extortion.

However, each company might define these coverages differently, so reviewing the terms and conditions of a particular policy is crucial. Choosing an appropriate amount of insurance is difficult because there is no easy way to measure the exposure in advance. Consultation with the organization’s technology department, insurance agent and insurance company might be helpful.

Finally, all policies will carry a deductible; the organization should select a deductible level that it can afford to pay and that will provide it with a meaningful discount on the premium. Once management has a thorough understanding of the coverages various policies provide in relation to the organization’s exposures, it can fairly compare the costs of the policies and make an informed choice.

Computer networks are a necessary part of any organization’s environment today. Loss prevention and reduction techniques, coupled with sound insurance protection at a reasonable cost, will enable an organization to get through a cyber loss event.

Preventing Employment Bias Claims

By Business Protection Bulletin | No Comments

Norma is an assistant manager at a video store. After feeling very sick for a couple of days, she goes to the doctor and is diagnosed with strep throat. Since her employer provides sick time benefits, she calls the store manager and tells him she cannot work that day. He dismisses her illness as “just a sore throat” and orders her to report for work.

She complies, but the strep infection takes most of a week to go away because she could not rest. On the third day, she calls in sick again, despite the manager’s obvious displeasure. Six weeks later, the manager terminates her employment, citing declining sales as the reason. Norma believes otherwise and files a complaint with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

Since the great recession began in late 2007, complaints like this have become common. The EEOC reported that it received almost 100,000 job bias complaints in 2010, a new record. More than a third of them were from employees who felt their employers retaliated against them; another third were race discrimination claims. Why is this happening? Employment law experts believe the recession has a lot to do with it, as dismissed employees have had trouble finding new jobs. They also believe the EEOC has stepped up enforcement of anti-discrimination laws. However, they also point to internal problems with employers.

Some employers might perform only those activities that they believe will give them an effective legal defense should an employee sue. They write anti-discrimination and anti-retaliation policies into their employee handbooks, make supervisors attend training once a year, and then call it a day. However, these things by themselves might not be effective. Policies do no good if managers do not enforce them.

Training that does not address trends such as discrimination and retaliation complaints will not stop them from happening. In addition, if managers do not monitor whether this training changes supervisors’ behavior, supervisors might conclude that the company is not serious about it.

Employment Practices Liability insurance covers an employer’s legal liability for wrongful acts against employees, including discrimination and retaliation. Insurance underwriters will look at an employer’s policies and training practices, but they will also consider its claim history. Underwriters will be wary of insuring employers with a record of frequent complaints against them. If they offer coverage at all, they will charge higher premiums to account for the perceived higher risk.

To prevent claims and keep insurance premiums low, employers should consider these measures:

Study financial results to determine how much these types of claims have cost or might cost in the future in terms of settlements, legal costs, time more profitably spent on other matters, workplace morale, insurance costs and other areas.

Ensure that you have strong policies in place against discrimination and retaliation.

Require supervisors and managers to attend training to prevent these kinds of claims. Include in the content of the training discussions of what is and is not permissible when it comes to discrimination and retaliation. Make it clear that performance evaluations will include incidents of discriminatory behavior.

Create a workplace culture that does not tolerate illegal activities of any kind. Senior managers should conduct themselves in ways that model the behaviors they want to see from subordinates.

Experts say that recessions always breed increased discrimination complaints against employers. However, that does not have to be the case with every employer. Effective training costs money, but that cost is far less than the cost of insurance deductibles, higher premiums, demoralized workforces, and damaged reputations. Discrimination and retaliation claims hurt a business’s bottom line. Preventing them makes both economic and moral sense.

Types of Insurance for Campgrounds

By Business Protection Bulletin | No Comments

As the owner of a campground, you have the responsibility to protect your campers, their guests and their property. Insurance for campgrounds gives you the protection you need.

Eligible Campgrounds

Almost any private or publically held campground, RV park or cabin rental business is eligible for insurance for campgrounds. Your facility can also be insured if you offer amusement options such as:

  • Swimming
  • Boating or canoeing
  • Golf – regular or mini
  • Playgrounds
  • Horseback riding
  • Hiking, biking or walking trails
  • Inflatables

Types of Insurance for Campgrounds

Select from several common types of insurance for campgrounds. Your insurance agent will provide you with additional information about each type and which coverage your campground needs.

General Liability Insurance

General liability insurance covers the property damage or bodily injury expenses that result from negligence or an oversight that’s your responsibility. Additionally, your general liability policy can include optional coverage for:

  • Liquor liability
  • Fireworks liability
  • Personal and advertising injury
  • Non-owned watercraft up to 51′
  • Transmissible pathogens coverage

Property Insurance

Property damages to your campground can be expensive to repair. Property insurance pays for a variety of damage and can cover challenges such as:

  • Equipment breakdowns
  • Vacancy clause
  • Damage to pavilions, shelters, tent platforms, boat racks and permanently installed playground equipment
  • Emergency vacating expenses
  • Business interruption
  • Communicable disease
  • Food contamination

Commercial Auto Insurance

The vehicles you drive for business around the campground or elsewhere must be covered with a commercial auto insurance policy. Your private insurance will not pay for expenses if you are in an accident or cause property damage in your business vehicle. You can use this coverage for vehicles you own or hire, and it covers trailers you may need to transport, too.

Workers’ Compensation Insurance

If your employees suffer an injury or illness while performing work-related duties, you will want to pay their medical treatment and other expenses. Workers’ Compensation insurance covers these expenses. Requirements vary by state, so discuss your specific campground with your insurance agent as you purchase adequate Workers’ Compensation.

Theft Insurance

When something is stolen from your campground, you will have to pay to replace it. Theft insruance covers this expense.

How to Purchase Insurance for Campgrounds

Your insurance agent will assist you in purchasing insurance for campgrounds. You will want to fill out an application and provide photos of your campground, financial records for the last five years and other information as required by your insurance company.

Insurance for campgrounds is a valuable purchase that protects your business and personal assets. Be sure your policy is updated and includes adequate coverage for your needs. Your insurance agent will help you choose insurance for campgrounds that’s right for your facility.

6 Tips to a Safer Workplace

By Business Protection Bulletin | No Comments

The risk management firm PMA Companies recently released a report, Six Steps to a Safer Workforce: Building Accountability as an Essential Element for Injury Prevention in the Healthcare Industry. According to the report, a safety program that includes top-management commitment, as well as accountability for safety at every level of the business, will help optimize productivity, keep employees safe and healthy, and reduce costs.

Although PMA wrote the report for healthcare firms, these guidelines apply to any industry and any workplace.

    1. Create a safety environment that begins with top management and focuses on actions.


    1. Demonstrate your commitment. Implement a zero-tolerance policy for violations, as well as a strong safety program led by mid-level supervisors. Create a system of accountability for safety that includes effective documentation, thorough training and communication, and follow-through on safety rules.

      Make sure that all parties involved hold each other accountable. Accountability goes beyond performing the tasks assigned to given roles, and involves ensuring that everyone performs their roles safely. This approach will make employees and managers more vigilant in seeking opportunities to improve processes that increase safety.


    1. Focus on unit leaders. Your program should include buy-in and participation by mid-level managers and supervisors, who are largely responsible maintaining a culture of safety in the workplace. Address not only unsafe employee behavior, but also the consequences failures by managers and supervisors to enforce policies.


    1. Give managers authority to take actions to improve safety, whether that involves using safer materials or equipment or changing work practices or schedules.


    1. Measure safety. Use reliable loss trend data to set unit-based safety goals.


  1. Encourage safety-minded decisions. To integrate effective decision-making into the regular performance of employees, train them to identify the safest solution and hold them accountable for doing so asks.

The report concludes by saying: “The benefits of greater employee safety can be profound. Studies show that employee satisfaction increases and employee turnover decreases when organizations are committed to providing a safe work environment.”

Insurance for Aquariums

By Business Protection Bulletin | No Comments

Aquariums entertain kids and adults with a variety of programs and activities. If you own or operate an aquarium, purchase adequate insurance for aquariums as you protect your patrons and your business.

What Activities Does Insurance for Aquariums Cover?

Depending on your specific insurance for aquariums, your policy may cover numerous programs, activities and people.

  • Animal rides
  • Play areas
  • Field trips
  • Day camps
  • Special events
  • Fundraisers
  • Volunteers
  • Food and beverage concessions

Types of Insurance for Aquariums

Protect your aquarium with several different types of insurance.

General Liability

Written on an admitted basis in most states, general liability offers broad coverage. It typically covers bodily injury and property damage. Ask your insurance agent about coverage for other liabilities, too, such as:

  • Employee Benefits Liability
  • Liquor Liability
  • Transmissible Pathogens Coverage
  • Volunteer Accident Medical Coverage

Property Coverage

Equipment breakdowns could cost your aquarium thousands of dollars. Property insurance can pay to cover these repairs. It can also cover emergency vacating expenses and crisis response coverage for your business.

Workers’ Compensation Insurance

Employees could be injured or become ill while they perform their job. Carry Workers’ Compensation to cover medical treatment, loss of income and other related costs. Because the Workers’ Compensation requirements vary by state, discuss your specific needs with your insurance agent.

Employment Practices Liability Insurance

EPLI covers claims employees make against your aquarium. These claims could include discrimination, wrongful termination, breach of contract and other wrongful acts. Purchase EPLI coverage as a stand-alone policy or as part of your packaged Businessowners Policy.

Commercial Auto Insurance

A vehicle you own and use primarily for work-related activities must be covered with commercial auto insurance. This policy can also cover a trailer you use to haul animals to other locations for educational shows or displays.

Directors and Officers Liability Insurance

Your aquarium’s board of directors guides your business, but they can be sued if they make a decision that creates financial consequences for someone. D & O liability insurance covers legal fees on a claims-made basis.

Crime Insurance

When a crime, including theft, occurs at your aquarium, you must absorb the loss. File a claim against your crime insurance to cover the theft.

Cyber Liability Insurance

The collection of customer data, including credit card information, is common in any business. Data and cyber breaches put your aquarium at risk, though, so protect your business with cyber liability insurance.

Insurance for aquariums protects your business and ensures you can continue to entertain guests. Discuss your aquarium insurance needs with your agent today.

The “Coming and Going” Rule

By Construction Insurance Bulletin | No Comments

The theory of respondeat superior makes employers vicariously liable for wrongful acts committed by employees during the course and scope of their employment. However, the “going and coming” rule generally exempts employers from liability for wrongful acts committed by employees while on their way to and from work, because employees are said to be outside of the course and scope of employment during their daily commute.

A well-known exception to the going-and-coming rule arises if the use of the car gives some incidental benefit to the employer. Thus, the key issue becomes whether the employer derives an incidental benefit from the employee’s use of the car. This has been referred to as the “required-vehicle” exception. The exception can apply if the use of a personally owned vehicle is either an express or implied condition of employment, or if the employee has agreed, expressly or implicitly, to make the vehicle available as an accommodation to the employer, and the employer has “reasonably come to rely upon its use and [to] expect the employee to make the vehicle available on a regular basis while still not requiring it as a condition of employment.”

For example, Section 401.011(12) of the Texas Labor Code, which codifies this general rule, states:

Course and scope of employment means an activity of any kind or character that has to do with and originates in the work, business, trade, or profession of the employer and that is performed by an employee while engaged in or about the furtherance of the affairs or business of the employer. The term includes an activity conducted on the premises of the employer or at other locations. The term does not include:

(A) transportation to and from the place of employment unless:

    the transportation is furnished as a part of the contract of employment or is paid for by the employer; the means of the transportation are under the control of the employer; or the employee is directed in the employee’s employment to proceed from one place to another place; or

(B) travel by the employee in the furtherance of the affairs or business of the employer if the travel is also in furtherance of personal or private affairs of the employee unless:

  • the travel to the place of occurrence of the injury would have been made even had there been no personal or private affairs of the employee to be furthered by the travel; and
  • the travel would not have been made had there been no affairs or business of the employer to be furthered by the travel.

In insurance policies, the general definition describes coverage, and travel must meet both its components to be in the course and scope of employment. Subsections (A) and (B) are exclusions, each followed by exceptions. Subsection (A) has three, disjunctive exceptions; if any one is met, the exclusion does not apply, and travel to and from work is not excluded from the course and scope of employment. Subsection (B) has two, conjunctive exceptions and applies unless both are met.

Subsection (B) is somewhat convoluted. More simply put, it does not exclude work-required travel from the course and scope of employment merely because the travel also furthers the employee’s personal interests that would not, alone, have caused him to make the trip. A recent California case, Lobo v. Tamco, 182 Cal. App. 4th 297 (Cal. App. 4th Dist. 2010) , interpreted this standard very broadly. Here are the facts of this case:

“Daniel Lobo, a San Bernardino County deputy sheriff, was killed on October 11, 2005, as the result of allegedly negligent operation of a motor vehicle by defendant’s employee Luis Duay Del Rosario, while acting in the course and scope of his employment by defendant Tamco. Del Rosario was leaving the premises of his employer, Tamco. As he drove his car out of the driveway and onto Arrow Highway, he failed to notice three motorcycle deputies approaching with lights and sirens activated. Deputy Lobo was unable to avoid colliding with Del Rosario’s car and suffered fatal injuries.

“Deputy Lobo’s widow, Jennifer Lobo, filed a wrongful death suit on behalf of herself and the Lobos’ minor daughter, Madison. Kiley and Kadie Lobo, minor daughters of Deputy Lobo, filed a separate wrongful death action through their guardian ad litem. Both suits alleged that Del Rosario was acting within the course and scope of his employment by Tamco at the time of the accident.

“When Del Rosario left Tamco on the day of the accident, he was going home. However, if he had been asked to visit a customer site, he “would have gotten in [his] car and used [his] car to go to that facility,” just like on any other day. He kept boots, a helmet, and safety glasses in his car.

“This evidence is clearly sufficient to support the conclusion that Tamco requires Del Rosario to make his car available whenever it is necessary for him to visit customer sites, and that Tamco derives a benefit from the availability of Del Rosario’s car.

Tamco, however, emphasizes that it was rare that Del Rosario visited customer facilities or jobsites, and contends that in all cases in which the “required-vehicle” exception to the going and coming rule has been found applicable, driving was an “integral” part of the employee’s job and that Del Rosario’s occasional use of his own car to visit customers is insufficient as a matter of law to invoke the exception.

“Tamco has not cited any case in which a court has addressed a contention that the employee’s use of his own car was too infrequent to warrant application of the exception and we have found none. “

Lesson learned. Realize that allowing employees to use their personal vehicles on company business can expose you to liability. Make sure that employees know the parameters and have good driving records, and make sure there is plenty of insurance to handle any possible claims.